エイミー・カディ – 2

TED 2012「ボディランゲージが人を作る」オリジナル動画はこちら

Amy Cuddy の英語解説 – 2

– TED 2012 “Your body language may shape who you are” par. 7-13 –

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So what nonverbals am I talking about? I’m a social psychologist. I study prejudice, and I teach at a competitive business school, so it was inevitable that I would become interested in power dynamics. I became especially interested in nonverbal expressions of power and dominance.

prejudice /prédʒədəs/ (名) 先入観、偏見

inevitable /inévətəbl/ (形) 避けられない、不可避の

dynamics /dainǽmiks/ (名) 動力学、力学 ⇨ “power dynamics”「権力の力学」の意。

dominance /dɑ́mənəns/ (名) 支配、優勢

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And what are nonverbal expressions of power and dominance? Well, this is what they are. So in the animal kingdom, they are about expanding. So you make yourself big, you stretch out, you take up space, you’re basically opening up. It’s about opening up. And this is true across the animal kingdom. It’s not just limited to primates. And humans do the same thing. (Laughter) So they do this both when they have power sort of chronically, and also when they’re feeling powerful in the moment. And this one is especially interesting because it really shows us how universal and old these expressions of power are. This expression, which is known as pride, Jessica Tracy has studied. She shows that people who are born with sight and people who are congenitally blind do this when they win at a physical competition. So when they cross the finish line and they’ve won, it doesn’t matter if they’ve never seen anyone do it. They do this. So the arms up in the V, the chin is slightly lifted.

what they are: “what” は先行詞を含む関係代名詞で「〜のこと/もの」。“they” は “nonverbal expressions of power and dominance” を指す。「それらが何たるかというもの」つまり「それらの正体」の意。

kingdom /kíŋdəm/ (名) ~界

are about expanding:  “be about 〜” で「〜が(最も重要な)目的である/のことばかり考えている」の意。ここでは「拡大することが重要である。」のニュアンス。

take up 〜: (空間などを)占める、取る

open up: 広げる

It’s not just limited to 〜: “be limited to 〜” で「〜に限られている」の意。ここでは “not just” が付いているので、「それは〜だけに限られているわけではない」の部分否定の意味。

primate /práimət/ (名) 霊長類

chronically  /krɑ́nikəli/ (副) 慢性的に

both when 〜 and (also) when …: 〜するときと…するときと両方で

sort of: (口語)多少、いくらか、幾分、ある程度

in the moment: その瞬間(時)に

this one: 前文全てを示している。

universal /jùːnəvə́ːrsl/ (形) 普遍的

it really shows us how universal and (how) old these expressions of power are: 「“it” が私たちに “how” 以下を示している。」意。“how” 以下は、間接疑問の名詞節。疑問文 “How universal and (how) old are these expressions of power?” を、“are” を最後に置いて名詞節にしている。全体では「それは、本当に、それらの権力の表現がどれくらい普遍的でどれくらい古いものなのかということを我々に示している。」の意。

born with sight: 目が見える様に生まれた

congenitally /kəndʒénitli/ (副) 生まれついて

it doesn’t matter if 〜: 〜かどうかは関係ない

seen anyone do it: “see (知覚動詞) + (人) + 動詞の原形” で、「(人) が〜することを見る」の意。

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What do we do when we feel powerless? We do exactly the opposite. We close up. We wrap ourselves up. We make ourselves small. We don’t want to bump into the person next to us. So again, both animals and humans do the same thing. And this is what happens when you put together high and low power. So what we tend to do when it comes to power is that we complement the other’s nonverbals. So if someone is being really powerful with us, we tend to make ourselves smaller. We don’t mirror them. We do the opposite of them.

close up: 閉ざす、閉じる

wrap 〜 up: 〜を包む

bump into 〜: (偶然に人と)出会う、鉢合わせする ⇨ bump /sjúː/ (動)  ドンとぶつかる

what happens: “what” は先行詞を含む関係代名詞で「〜のこと/もの」。ここでは「起こること」の意。

put together: (考えを)まとめる

when it comes to 〜: ~のことになると

complement /kɑ́mpləmènt/ (動) 補完する

mirror /mírər/ (動) 〜を映す ⇨ ここでは「真似する」のニュアンス。

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So I’m watching this behavior in the classroom, and what do I notice? I notice that MBA students really exhibit the full range of power nonverbals. So you have people who are like caricatures of alphas, really coming into the room, they get right into the middle of the room before class even starts, like they really want to occupy space. When they sit down, they’re sort of spread out. They raise their hands like this. You have other people who are virtually collapsing when they come in. As soon as they come in, you see it. You see it on their faces and their bodies, and they sit in their chair and they make themselves tiny, and they go like this when they raise their hand.

exhibit /igzíbit/ (動) 示す

full range of 〜: あらゆる〜

you have people who are like 〜: ここでは「〜の様な人がいる」のニュアンス。

caricature /kǽrikətʃùər/ (名) 戯画、パロディー

alpha /ǽlfə/ (名) (猿などの)群のボス ⇨ “caricatures of alphas” 「群れのボスのパロディー」のニュアンス。

get right into 〜: “get into 〜” で「〜に到着する」。 “right” はここでは「真っすぐに」のニュアンス。

like /láik/ (接続)(口語)~のように

virtually /və́ːrtʃuəli/ (副) 実質的には、事実上、

collapse /kəlǽps/ (動) へたり込む、ヘタヘタと座り込む

it: ここでは “collapsing” であることを示す。

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I notice a couple of things about this. One, you’re not going to be surprised. It seems to be related to gender. So women are much more likely to do this kind of thing than men. Women feel chronically less powerful than men, so this is not surprising.

gender /dʒéndər/ (名) 性別

this kind of thing: このようなこと

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But the other thing I noticed is that it also seemed to be related to the extent to which the students were participating, and how well they were participating. And this is really important in the MBA classroom, because participation counts for half the grade.

extent /ikstént/ (名) 程度、度合い ⇨ “the extent to which the students were participating” 「生徒がどの程度参加したか」の意。“which” は関係代名詞で先行詞は “extent”。

and (be related to) how well they 〜: カッコ内が省略されている。

count for 〜: ~に値する

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So business schools have been struggling with this gender grade gap. You get these equally qualified women and men coming in and then you get these differences in grades, and it seems to be partly attributable to participation. So I started to wonder, you know, okay, so you have these people coming in like this, and they’re participating. Is it possible that we could get people to fake it and would lead them to participate more?

struggle /strʌ́gl/ (動) (with)(課題や困難などに)取り組む、悪戦苦闘する

gender grade gap: 性別による成績の差

You get [have] 〜 coming in: ここでは「〜をビジネススクールに入校させる」のニュアンス。

attributable /ətríbjutəbl/ (形) (~に)起因する

you know: えー、あの…(“like” 同様つなぎ言葉)

fake /féik/ (動) ~のふりをする

and (we) would lead them to 〜: カッコ内が省略されている。

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