Amy Cuddy – 3

TED 2012「ボディランゲージが人を作る」オリジナル動画はこちら

エイミー・カディ の英語解説 – 3

– TED 2012 “Your body language may shape who you are” par. 14-18 –

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So my main collaborator Dana Carney, who’s at Berkeley, and I really wanted to know, can you fake it till you make it? Like, can you do this just for a little while and actually experience a behavioral outcome that makes you seem more powerful? So we know that our nonverbals govern how other people think and feel about us. There’s a lot of evidence. But our question really was, do our nonverbals govern how we think and feel about ourselves?

collaborator /kəlǽbərèitər/ (名) 協力者

make it: やり遂げる

behavioral /bihéivjərl/ (形) 行動(の研究)に関する

a behavioral outcome that makes you seem more powerful: “that” は関係代名詞で先行詞は “a behavioral outcome”。 “make” は使役動詞で「〜を…させる」。全体では「あなたをよりパワフルに見える様にする行動の結果」の意。

govern /gʌ́vərn/ (動) ~に影響を与える、~を左右する

how other people think and feel about us: “how” 以下は間接疑問の名詞節。「他人が我々についてどの様に思ったかや感じたか」の意。

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There’s some evidence that they do. So, for example, we smile when we feel happy, but also, when we’re forced to smile by holding a pen in our teeth like this, it makes us feel happy. So it goes both ways. When it comes to power, it also goes both ways. So when you feel powerful, you’re more likely to do this, but it’s also possible that when you pretend to be powerful, you are more likely to actually feel powerful.

they do: = our nonverbals govern

hold a pen in our teeth: 上下の歯でペンを横に加える

it goes both ways: “happy” だと “smile” するし、(強制的に)“smile” すると “happy” になるという両方という意味。

do this: 画像では手を広げる仕草をしている

pretend /priténd/ (動) ~のふりをする

be (more) likely to ~: ~する可能性が高い、~する傾向が強い

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So the second question really was, you know, so we know that our minds change our bodies, but is it also true that our bodies change our minds? And when I say minds, in the case of the powerful, what am I talking about? So I’m talking about thoughts and feelings and the sort of physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings, and in my case, that’s hormones. I look at hormones. So what do the minds of the powerful versus the powerless look like? So powerful people tend to be, not surprisingly, more assertive and more confident, more optimistic. They actually feel they’re going to win even at games of chance. They also tend to be able to think more abstractly. So there are a lot of differences. They take more risks. There are a lot of differences between powerful and powerless people. Physiologically, there also are differences on two key hormones: testosterone, which is the dominance hormone, and cortisol, which is the stress hormone.

the powerful: “the” + 形容詞で「(形容詞)な人」の意。ここでは「powerful な人」。

physiological /fìziɑ́lədʒikəl/ (形) 生理学の、生理的な ⇨ “physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings”: “that” は関係代名詞で先行詞は “physiological things” で「我々の考えや感覚を作り上げている生理学的なこと」の意。 ⇨ physiologically (副) 生理(学)的に

hormones /hɔ́ːrmoun/ (名)《生化学》ホルモン

the powerless: powerlessな人 ⇔ “the powerful”

assertive /əsə́ːrtiv/ (形) 積極的な、自己主張の強い

games of chance: 賭博、運まかせのゲーム

abstractly /æbstrǽktli/ (副) 抽象的に 

differences on 〜: 〜についての相違点

testosterone /testɑ́stəròun/ (名) 《生化学》テストステロン(男性の代表的なホルモンで、発毛、精子の発達、闘争心等の促進・発達の働きがある。

dominance /dɑ́mənəns/ (名) (遺伝子の)顕性、優勢

cortisol /kɔ́rtisɔ̀l/ (名) 《化学》コルチゾール

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So what we find is that high-power alpha males in primate hierarchies have high testosterone and low cortisol, and powerful and effective leaders also have high testosterone and low cortisol. So what does that mean? When you think about power, people tended to think only about testosterone, because that was about dominance. But really, power is also about how you react to stress. So do you want the high-power leader that’s dominant, high on testosterone, but really stress reactive? Probably not, right? You want the person who’s powerful and assertive and dominant, but not very stress reactive, the person who’s laid back.

what we find: “what” は先行詞を含む関係代名詞で「〜のこと/もの」。全体では「我々が見つけたこと」の意。ちなみに、文法的には過去形の “what we found” が正しいが、ここでは意識的もしくは無意識的に、より臨場感を表すことができる現在形となっている。

alpha /ǽlfə/ (形)(群れの中で)第1位の

hierarchy /háiərɑ̀ːrki/ (名) 階層型組織

how you react to stress: 間接疑問の名詞節。 “you” は一般の人々を指しており訳さなくても良い。「ストレスにどう反応するか」の意。

reactive /ri(ː)ǽktiv/ (形) 反応性の高い、敏感な ⇨ “stress reactive”「ストレスに敏感な」の意。

who’s [is] 〜 and 〜 and 〜, but not …: “who” は関係代名詞で先行詞は “the person”。「〜で〜で〜だけど、…ではない “person”」の意。

laid back (形) (人の性格などが)おおらかな、こだわらない

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So we know that in primate hierarchies, if an alpha needs to take over, if an individual needs to take over an alpha role sort of suddenly, within a few days, that individual’s testosterone has gone up significantly and his cortisol has dropped significantly. So we have this evidence, both that the body can shape the mind, at least at the facial level, and also that role changes can shape the mind. So what happens, okay, you take a role change, what happens if you do that at a really minimal level, like this tiny manipulation, this tiny intervention? “For two minutes,” you say, “I want you to stand like this, and it’s going to make you feel more powerful.”

take over: (権力などを)奪う、(責任などを)引き継ぐ

take over an alpha role (sort of) suddenly: “sort of” は、口語で「多少、ある程度」の意でカッコに入れると理解しやすい。

significantly /signífikəntli/ (副) 著しく、かなり

this evidence, both that 〜, and also that …: 2つの “that” は同格の接続詞で、 “that” 以下は “the evidence” を説明している。「〜や…という両方の “evidence”」の意。

facial /féiʃəl/ (形) 顔の ⇨ “at the facial level”「顔のレベルで」。口にペンをはさんで笑顔にするとハッピーになる例のことを指している。

role change: 役割変更 ⇨ “take a role change” 「役割変更を受け入れる」。

what happens: 何が起こるのか? ⇨ “what happens if 〜” 「もし〜なら何が起こるのか/どうなるのか?」。

minimal /mínəml/ (形) 最小/最低(限度)の ⇨ “at the minimal level”「最低限のレベルで」。

tiny /táini/ (形) とても小さい、ちっぽけな

manipulation /mənìpjəléiʃən/ (名) (人心などの)操縦、操作

intervention  /ìntərvénʃən/ (名) 介入、干渉

you say: ここでは「あなたが言ったら」程度の意味。

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