Amy Cuddy – 5

TED 2012「ボディランゲージが人を作る」オリジナル動画はこちら

エイミー・カディ の英語解説 – 5

– TED 2012 “Your body language may shape who you are” par. 25-28 –

Paragraph 25

You know, so we were of course horrified, and said, Oh my God, no, that’s not what we meant at all. For numerous reasons, no, don’t do that. Again, this is not about you talking to other people. It’s you talking to yourself. What do you do before you go into a job interview? You do this. You’re sitting down. You’re looking at your iPhone — or your Android, not trying to leave anyone out. You’re looking at your notes, you’re hunching up, making yourself small, really what you should be doing maybe is this, like, in the bathroom, right? Do that. Find two minutes. So that’s what we want to test. Okay? So we bring people into a lab, and they do either high- or low-power poses again, they go through a very stressful job interview. It’s five minutes long. They are being recorded. They’re being judged also, and the judges are trained to give no nonverbal feedback, so they look like this. Imagine this is the person interviewing you. So for five minutes, nothing, and this is worse than being heckled. People hate this. It’s what Marianne LaFrance calls “standing in social quicksand.” So this really spikes your cortisol. So this is the job interview we put them through, because we really wanted to see what happened. We then have these coders look at these tapes, four of them. They’re blind to the hypothesis. They’re blind to the conditions. They have no idea who’s been posing in what pose, and they end up looking at these sets of tapes, and they say, “We want to hire these people,” all the high-power posers. “We don’t want to hire these people. We also evaluate these people much more positively overall.” But what’s driving it? It’s not about the content of the speech. It’s about the presence that they’re bringing to the speech. Because we rate them on all these variables related to competence, like, how well-structured is the speech? How good is it? What are their qualifications? No effect on those things. This is what’s affected. These kinds of things. People are bringing their true selves, basically. They’re bringing themselves. They bring their ideas, but as themselves, with no, you know, residue over them. So this is what’s driving the effect, or mediating the effect.

horrified /hɔ́ːrəfàid/ (形) 恐怖に襲われた

that’s not what we meant at all: “what” は先行詞を含む関係代名詞。「それは、全く我々が意味しているところではない。」の意。

numerous /núːmərəs/ (形) 非常に多くの

this is not about you talking to 〜: 「これは、〜に話すことについてではない。」つまり「〜に話すときのことを言っているのではない。」のニュアンス。

leave (人) out: (人) を脱落させる

hunch up: 肩をすぼめる、身を縮こめる

go through 〜: (困難などを)体験する

judge /dʒʌ́dʒ/ (名) 判定者

nonverbal feedback: 非言語的なフィードバック

this is the person (who is) interviewing you: カッコ内が省略されている。

heckle /hékl/ (動) 質問攻めにする

Marianne LaFrance: 米ボストン大学の心理学者

quicksand /dʒʌ́dʒ/ (名) (流砂のように抜け出すのが困難な)危険な状況、窮地、泥沼状態

spike /spáik/ (動) ~を急上昇させる

put (人) through 〜: (人)に~を経験させる/受けさせる

coder /kóudər/ (名) ここでは「テストする人」のニュアンス。

have these coders look at these tapes: “have 〜 look …” 使役動詞で「〜に…を見させる」の意。 “tapes” はビデオ画像。

be blind to 〜: ~が分からない、~に左右されない

hypothesis /haipɑ́θəsis/ (名) 仮説

condition /kəndíʃən/ (名) 条件、前提

end up 〜ing: 結局~することになる

We don’t want to hire these people: ここでの “these people” は “low-power pose” をとった人たちのこと。

evaluate /ivǽljuèit/ (動)  評価する

We also evaluate these people much more positively overall: ここでの “these people” は “high-power pose” をとった人たちのこと。

drive /dráiv/ (動) (物事を)推進する ⇨ “what’s driving it?” 「何がそうさせているのか?」のニュアンス。

presence /prézns/ (名) 存在感、物腰 ⇨ “presence that they’re bringing to the speech” 「スピーチ(ここでは面接)に持ち込んだ存在感」のニュアンス。

rate (人) on 〜: (人)を〜で評価する

variable /vέəriəbl/ (名) 変数

competence /kɑ́mpətns/ (名) 能力、適性

well-structured /hɔ́ːrəfàid/ (形) よく構成された

qualification /kwɑ̀ləfikéiʃən/ (名) 資質、能力

No effect on 〜: ~には影響/効果がない ⇨ “No effect on those things”: “those things” は前文の “qualifications” などのこと。「ポーズをとることはこれらの素質には影響を与えなかった。」のニュアンス。

This is what’s affected: これが影響を受けたもの/こと。 “This” は “presence” などのこと。(画像では “Presence” “Passionate” “Confident” “Enthusiastic” などの言葉が映し出されている。)

selves /sélvz/ (名) 自分たち

residue /rézidùː/ (名)  残り、残余物 ⇨ “presence that they’re bringing to the speech” 「スピーチ(ここでは面接)に持ち込んだ存在感」のニュアンス。

mediate /míːdièit/ (動) 媒介する

Paragraph 26

So when I tell people about this, that our bodies change our minds and our minds can change our behavior, and our behavior can change our outcomes, they say to me, “It feels fake.” Right? So I said, fake it till you make it. It’s not me. I don’t want to get there and then still feel like a fraud. I don’t want to feel like an impostor. I don’t want to get there only to feel like I’m not supposed to be here. And that really resonated with me, because I want to tell you a little story about being an impostor and feeling like I’m not supposed to be here.

tell (人) that our bodies 〜: (人)に〜を話す/伝える ⇨ “about this” をカッコに入れるとわかりやすい。

It feels fake: それはいんちき/いかさまに感じる

make it: うまくいく/やり遂げる

fraud /frɔ́ːd/ (名) 詐欺、ペテン

impostor /impɑ́stər/ (名) 詐欺師

resonate /rézənèit/ (動) (心の中に)響き渡る ⇨ “resonate with (人)” 「(人)の心に響く」

Paragraph 27

When I was 19, I was in a really bad car accident. I was thrown out of a car, rolled several times. I was thrown from the car. And I woke up in a head injury rehab ward, and I had been withdrawn from college, and I learned that my IQ had dropped by two standard deviations, which was very traumatic. I knew my IQ because I had identified with being smart, and I had been called gifted as a child. So I’m taken out of college, I keep trying to go back. They say, “You’re not going to finish college. Just, you know, there are other things for you to do, but that’s not going to work out for you.”

throw /θróu/ (動) 投げる ⇨ “be thrown out of a car” 「車から投げ出される」

roll /róul/ (動) 転がる

rehab /rìːhəb/ (名) = rehabilitation リハビリテーション

ward /wɔ́ːrd/ (名) 病棟 ⇨ “a head injury rehab ward” 「頭部損傷リハビリ病棟」

withdraw /wiðdrɔ́/ (動) (参加や加入を)やめさせる

standard deviation: 《統計》標準偏差

traumatic /trəmǽṭik/ (形) (忘れられないほど)衝撃的な

identified with 〜: ~であると確認される

gifted /gíftid/ (形) 優れた才能のある

be taken out of 〜: ~から外される

that’s: ここでは「大学に行くことは」のニュアンス。

work out: うまくいく

Paragraph 28

So I really struggled with this, and I have to say, having your identity taken from you, your core identity, and for me it was being smart, having that taken from you, there’s nothing that leaves you feeling more powerless than that. So I felt entirely powerless. I worked and worked, and I got lucky, and worked, and got lucky, and worked.

struggle /strʌ́gl/ (動) 取り組む、悪戦苦闘する ⇨ “struggle with 〜” 「(困難などに)取り組む、奮闘する、苦労する」

have 〜 taken from …: …から〜を取り上げる

there’s nothing that leaves you feeling more powerless than that: 最初の “that” は関係代名詞で先行詞は “nothing”。“leave” はここでは「ある状態のままにしておく」のニュアンス。最後の “that” は「アイデンティティを取り上げられてこと」を指す。全体では「アイデンティティを取り上げられることより無力に感じさせられることは他にない。」のニュアンス。

get lucky: 運に恵まれる

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